نیمرخ شکوفایی دانش‌آموزان سرآمد براساس مدل پرمای سلیگمن: بررسی تفاوت‌های جنسیتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی تربیتی و مشاوره، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکترا روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه روش‌ها و برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه روانشناسی تربیتی و مشاوره، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف ترسیم و مقایسه نیمرخ شکوفایی دانش‌آموزان سرآمد دختر و پسر دوره اول متوسطه (رده سنی ۱۵-۱۳ سال) براساس مدل شکوفایی سلیگمن انجام شد. پژوهش به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش توصیفی از نوع مطالعات توصیفی-مقایسه‌ای بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر را دانش‌آموزان سرآمد دختر و پسر دوره اول متوسطه شهرستان تبریز در سال‌تحصیلی ۹۹-۱۳۹۸ تشکیل می‌دادند. ۵۹۲ نفر (۲۲۶ نفر دانش‌آموز پسر و ۳۶۶ نفر دانش‌آموز دختر) به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای از بین دانش‌آموزان سرآمد دوره اول متوسطه این شهرستان انتخاب شدند. شرکت‌کنندگان پرسشنامه شکوفایی باتلر و کرن (۲۰۱۶) که برای سنجش مولفه‌های پنجگانه مدل پرما طراحی شده است را تکمیل نمودند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد در هیجانات مثبت و روابط مثبت تفاوت مثبت و معنادار به نفع دختران و در معنادهی و دستاورد تفاوت معنادار به نفع پسران وجود دارد. لیکن هیچ تفاوت معناداری در درگیر شدن بین دانش‌آموزان دختر و پسر بدست نیامد. هم‌چنین با وجود تفاوت دانش‌آموزان دختر و پسر در ابعاد مختلف شکوفایی، نمره کل شکوفایی آنان تفاوت معناداری با هم نداشت. یافته‌های این پژوهش می‌تواند به معلمان و مشاوران در شناسایی گروههایی با نقاط قوت و ضعف خاص و انجام مداخلات ارتقا شکوفایی در محیط‌های آموزشی یاری رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Flourishing Profile of Gifted Students Based on Seligman's PERMA Model: A Study of Gender Differences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elaheh Hejazi 1
  • Fahimeh Abbasi 2
  • Rezvan Hakimzadeh 3
  • Javad Ejei 4
1 Associate professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. candidate, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The present study aimed to describe and compare the flourishing profile of gifted male and female high school students (13-15 years old) based on Seligman’s PERMA model. This was applied research in terms of purpose and descriptive-comparative study based on research method. The statistical population of the present study consisted of the gifted male and female high school students in the Tabriz province in the academic year of 2009-2010. 592 students (226 male students and 366 female students) were selected by cluster random sampling method from this province’s gifted high school students. Respondents completed the PERMA-Profiler (Butler and Kern, 2016), designed to assess the five components of the PERMA model. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that there is a positive and significant difference in favor of girls in positive emotions and positive relationships and a significant difference in favor of boys in meaning and achievement. However, there was no significant difference in engagement between male and female students. Also, despite the differences between male and female students in different dimensions of flourishing, their total flourishing scores did not differ significantly. The findings can help teachers and counselors in identifying groups with specific strengths and weaknesses and performing interventions to promote prosperity in educational settings.
Introduction
Educational systems pay special attention to the gifted students and having a picture of their health and wellbeing is important to them because wellbeing is considered a necessary condition for achieving the highest personal and professional development. There is a long history of interest in how giftedness affects psychological wellbeing. A review of research findings shows that although there is interest in the well-being of gifted students, our knowledge of the subject is still insufficient despite conflicting findings (Neihart, 1999). Gender differences in gifted student wellbeing is also a subject that has not been well addressed in previous research. On the other hand, in recent years, researchers in the field of wellbeing and mental health have focused on the concept of "flourishing". Different conceptualizations of flourishing have been proposed. Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model is among the important conceptualizations in this area.  This model advocate that flourishing arises from five well-being pillars (positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment). Kern, Waters, Alder, and White (2014) argue that this model is an appropriate framework in educational settings to identify groups with specific strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the present study intends to describe and compare the flourishing profile of gifted male and female high school students (13-15 years old) based on Seligman’s PERMA model.
Method
This was applied research in terms of purpose and descriptive-comparative study based on research method. The statistical population of the present study consisted of the gifted male and female high school students in the Tabriz province in the academic year of 2009-2010. 592 students (226 male students and 366 female students) were selected by cluster random sampling method from this province’s gifted high school students. Respondents completed the PERMA-Profiler (Butler and Kern, 2016), designed to assess the five components of the PERMA model. Butler and Kern (2016) developed this scale through extensive theoretical and empirical research based on five components of Seligman’s Model of Flourishing (2011). The scale consisted of 15 items (three items for each component). The measures of multiple dimensions of wellbeing can be mentioned as the outstanding feature of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in the present study and the fitness indices were obtained as x2/df = 1.81, RMSEA = 0.05, GFI = 0.90, and NFI = 0.94, which were in an acceptable range and the five-factor structure was confirmed. Cronbach’s alphas of the entire scale and subscales of positive emotions, engagement, positive relations, meaning and, achievement were reported at 0.96, 0.96, 0.70, 0.84, 0.93, and 0.82 respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS and multivariate analysis of variance.
Finding
In the present study, participants consisted of 226 male and 366 female gifted students (M= 13/83, SD= 0/89). After the assumptions of multivariate analysis of variance are met, the results of the Pillay test (F (5,294) = 22/715, Value= 0/721) indicated that this test is significant at the level of p<0.01. Results of paired comparison (Table1) show that there is a positive and significant difference in favor of girls in positive emotions and positive relationships and a significant difference in favor of boys in meaning and achievement. However, there was no significant difference in engagement between male and female students.
Also, based on a one-way analysis of variance ((F (1,298) = 0/061, Value= 22/374) despite the differences between male and female students in different dimensions of flourishing, their total flourishing scores did not differ significantly (Figure1).
Discussion and Results
The present study aimed to describe and compare the flourishing profile of gifted male and female high school students based on Seligman’s PERMA model. The results showed that there is a positive and significant difference in favor of girls in positive emotions and positive relationships and a significant difference in favor of boys in meaning and achievement. However, there was no significant difference in engagement between male and female students. Also, despite the differences between male and female students in different dimensions of flourishing, their total flourishing scores did not differ significantly. The findings of this study can help teachers and counselors in identifying groups with specific strengths and weaknesses and performing interventions to promote prosperity in educational settings. The statistical population of the present study is limited to the gifted students and the generalization of the results to non-gifted students and other developmental stages should be done with caution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flourishing Profile
  • Seligman’s PERMA model
  • Gender Differences
  • Gifted Students