عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this study is to present a model of creativity in knowledge and values of education from the perspective of Sadr al-Mutalahin. The research method is prospective and decision-oriented, which is among qualitative research methods. Given the data collection method, it is analytical-inferential . Findings indicate that according to the anthropological assumptions of the present study in which the main essence of man is "becoming", the basic concept of creativity was redefined in terms of "will-oriented thought". Also, the final form of the desired model of creativity based on evaluation can be called "interpretive-refining approach". Also, based on the results of the research, the "transcendental representation approach" was determined based on epistemology.
The educational system of different countries emphasize different fields of education based on their viewpoint and attitude towards human beings, their abilities, the degree of flexibility, response to new needs, and environmental developments. (Hernández-Torrano, et al, 2020). Given the progress of science, Islamic philosophy needs to update itself in a dynamic movement to show that it is capable of answering new questions (Suryadi, 2019).
By examining one of the new philosophical categories, namely the philosophy of creativity and the philosophy of art in the philosophical school of Sadr al-Mutalahin, a new step is taken to respond new philosophical questions and to reconstruct the ideas of Islamic philosophers in new fields of philosophy. (Rizvi, 2013, Geravand & Joudi, 2020). In this regard, one of the prominent, yet neglected features of transcendent wisdom is the relationship that Mulla Sadra established between philosophical ontology and artistic aesthetics on the one hand and human creativity and creation on the other. This relationship has led Mulla Sadra in his philosophy to special perspectives in artistic aesthetics as a ground for creativity, which can answer many of the current problems of the education system in terms of art education (Sadr al-Din Shirazi, 1981).
One of the important topics that has been neglected by the commentators of transcendent wisdom is the connection that Mulla Sadra has established between philosophical ontology and aesthetics in art. Explaining this perspective leads to the establishment of certain principles in the philosophy of art and creativity, and provides a clear picture of the relationship between art and creativity through Mulla Sadra's views. Therefore, the main question of the present study is what is the model of creativity in knowledge and values of education based on the view of Sadr al-Mutalahin.
Given the nature of education, which is considered a value, the present study is prospective and decision-oriented, which is among the qualitative methods. Given that research method depends on the objectives and nature of the research subject and that this research has an educational nature, we used an analytical-inferential method. In this method, first the required information is collected, the data collection tool is research sheets. After studying the collected sources and selecting them, the content is categorized in order to obtain answers to the questions.
Since each model requires specific theoretical foundations, transcendent wisdom is examined and analyzed as a thought-oriented school. A meta-analytic approach is required to achieve a complete paradigm in this field. "This research approach helps the researcher to achieve a good combination of the quantitative results of contradictory and non-contradictory studies in the past, to explain the contradictions and to identify the structural variables that modulate the results of previous studies" in order to achieve more accurate and valid results than what has been achieved in each field study or qualitative study of all previous studies.
According to the anthropological assumptions of the present study in which the main essence of man is "becoming", there will be different descriptions of human creativity and the basic concept of creativity will be considered in terms of "will-oriented thought". Man has many degrees with special names for each rank and degree, starting from the soul and reaching its peak in the secret stage after becoming the heart, intellect, soul, secret and hidden. Relying on this type of human perception, the basic concept of creativity is presented. According to the anthropological basis of Sadr al-Mutallahin, which introduces man as "substantial movement" and "becoming", creativity is considered "thought directed to the will". Creativity in this sense cannot be reduced to a new and valuable product.
According to Sadra's anthropological basis, man is seen as "becoming", who has the talent to find all the truths and reach the position of the divine caliphate. From epistemological point of view, sometimes a person becomes interested in sciences that have no effect on their development or real happiness, but may prevent their perfection, which is why they need a guide or teacher. Considering these two dimensions of knowledge, the effect of this epistemological position on creativity should be determined. We will pursue this effect by proposing a "transcendent representation." This concept is an alternative to what has been proposed in the literature and theories of creativity. The research findings are consistent with innovative results of Mahmoudi (2013), Hosseini and Mahmoudi (2016), (2015), Ebrahimi (2017) and Ground and Judy (2020).
Discussion and conclusion
The present study aimed to find a desirable model for fostering creativity based on the philosophical foundations of Sadr al-Mutallahin Shirazi. In this research, the proposed model indicates the abstraction of reality and the organization of affairs. Regarding the status and nature of creativity, it was mainly based on the anthropological and epistemological basis of Sadr al-Mutallah. According to the anthropological basis of Sadr al-Mutalahin, man is seen as "becoming". Creativity should be considered as "thought based on the will" and its starting point should be based on human ontology. Accordingly, creativity is considered a part of the human soul and human beings have an existential structure that requires creativity. Based on the research findings, the optimal model of creativity in knowledge is the transcendent representation approach and the optimal model of creativity in values is the interpretive-refining approach.