ارائه الگوی تربیت جنسی در ایران بر مبنای برنامه جامع آموزش جنسی(CSE)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم تربیتی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور، واحد تهران جنوب، ایران

3 استاد دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

4 استاد دانشگاه پیام نور، واحد تهران جنوب، ایران

چکیده

برنامه جامع آموزش جنسی یکی از برنامه‌های جهانی است که یونسکو آن را طراحی و اجرا می‌کند. نتایج پژوهش‌های مختلف نشان از اهمیت و استفاده از مزایای این برنامه در برنامه‌های آموزشی مدارس کشورهای مختلف دارد. بنابراین، با توجه به فقدان پژوهش در این زمینه، هدف کلی مطالعه حاضر ارائه الگوی تربیت جنسی در ایران بر مبنای برنامه جامع آموزش جنسی است. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی است و در آن از تحلیل محتوای استقرایی استفاده شده‌است. داده‌های جمع‌آوری شده شامل: مطالعه اسناد بالادستی نظام آموزشی کشور، منابع علمی موجود، اسناد بین‌المللی مرتبط با موضوع پژوهش مانند برنامه جامع آموزش جنسی است. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می‌دهد که  برنامه  جامع آموزش جنسی، یک برنامه جامع است که با بسیاری از اعتقادات و باورهای دینی و ارزش‌ها و هنجارهای جامعه کنونی ایران همخوانی دارد، هرچند در بعضی از موارد نیز اختلافاتی دارد. همچنین الگوی نهایی تربیت جنسی در ایران در قالب اهداف (در حیطه شناختی، نگرشی و مهارتی)، اصول، محتوا (رشد انسان، ارتباط، مهارت‌های فردی، رفتار جنسی، سلامت جنسی، فرهنگ و اجتماع) و روش‌های آموزشی (مستقیم و غیرمستقیم) تنظیم شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study and Introduce a Model of Sexual Education in Iran Based on Comprehensive Sexual Education (CSE)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Shirbeigi 1
  • Zohreh Esmaeili 2
  • Bahman Saeidi poor 3
  • Mohammadreza Sarmadi 4
1 Educational Sciences, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Payam Noor, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of philosophy education, Department of Education science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, payamnoor university, Iran
3 Professor of philosophy education, Department of Education science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, payamnoor university, Iran
4 Professor of philosophy education, Department of Education science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, payamnoor university
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Comprehensive Sexual Education (CSE) is one of the global programs designed by UNESCO. Therefore, due to the lack of research in this field, purpose of this study is to provide a model of sexual education in Iran based on CSE.Data collection include of many resource: documents of the country's education system, Studying available scientific resources, and reviewing international research related documents such as the CSE. Results show that CSE is a comprehensive program that is consistent with many of the current religious beliefs, values, and norms of current Iranian society, although some differences are also evident.Also the final model of sexual education in Iran is stetted in sections of goals (cognitive, attitude and skill), principles, content (human development, communication, personal skills, sexual behavior, sexual health, culture and society) and educational methods (direct and indirect).
Introduction
During the process of growing up, children and adolescents gradually acquire knowledge, values, attitudes and skills related to the human body, intimate relationships and sexuality, often referred to as sexual development. In this feiled there are Several approaches to sexuality education. Comprehensive Sexual Education (CSE) is one of the global programs designed by UNESCO. The topics in CSE are described in the WHO standards for sexuality education for Europe (WHO & BZGA, 2018), IPPF’s Framework for CSE and Toolkit Enable & Deliver (IPPF, 2010 & 2017) and UNESCO’s International Guidance on SE (UNESCO, 2018), among others. UNESCO’s Global review (UNESCO, 2015) provides a rough overview of the situation regarding formal CSE in 48 countries across the world. In 80% of the surveyed countries there was a national policy or national strategy that supported CSE (bonjour,2018). In the field of sexual education reviewing the upstream documents of education, it has been determined that so far no document and roadmap has been designed and compiled in the Iranian educational system. However, some research has been done in this fieled, such as: bakhtiari,et al(2019), Mohammadbeigei,et al( 2017), Gholtash,et al(2018), Meghdadei,et al(2017) that were based on islam perspective. So, according to background results extant in this country, so far no research has been done in CSE, this paper can present a comprehensive outlook about sexual education matters based on CSE.
 
Method
The present study is qualitative and in order to achieve the objectives of the research, the research method of descriptive content analysis was used. For this purpose, based on the theoretical model of research, the researcher first extracts the key concepts of the comprehensive sexual education (International), which includes of human development, Relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, sexual health and sexual and culture. And then analyzed these concepts with the current programs of sexual education in Iran (National), and presented the model of sexual education in Iran (Local) according to the cultural, social and religious characteristics. In general, in order to collect data, the researcher used three categories of sources as follows:
1-study of upstream documents of the country's education system (document of fundamental change in education, philosophy of formal and public education in the Islamic Republic, theoretical foundations of fundamental change in the formal education system of the Islamic Republic of Iran and national curriculum).
2-Study of scientific and professional resources.
3-Review of international documents related to the research topic.
 After reviewing the scientific documents related to the subject of sexual education in Iran, the researcher examined the international documents related to the subject of sexual education. Documents related to the research topic included the Comprehensive Sexual Education (CSE), WHO programs and IPPF. Due to the overlap of the contents of the programs on the one hand and on the other hand the comprehensiveness and greater acceptance of the CSE, was selected as the desired model.
In order to validate it, using the opinions and solutions of several members of the faculty members, and in order to obtain the correct opinions and advice needed by the professors, guidance and counseling, the problems were solved and the models were presented.
Finding
In four general sections, including the goals, principles, content and methods of sexual education in Iran based on CSE are presented as follows.
goals of sexual education:
The goals of sexual education are based on the main dimensions (cognitive, attitudinal and skillful).
Some characteristics of the cognitive goals: Information about sexual issues such as development, human reproduction, genitals, physiology, pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, Understanding moral and religious.
Some characteristics of the Attitude goals: Understand the presence of God in all things, Respect for your gender identity.
Some characteristics of the skillfulls goals: Increases the ability to regulate instinctual sex, , Increasing awareness of gender issues affected by gender.
Some Principles of Sexual Education Program in Iran Based on CSE: Paying attention to the differences between different cultures and religions for marriage, long term commitment, living together, marriage and divorce, Pay attention to the emotional, psychological and sexual needs of spouses.
 Also the content of the model of sexual education in Iran based on CSE in the key concept  of  human development that include of: Reproductive and Sexual Anatomy and Physiology, Puberty, Reproduction, Body Image, Sexual Orientation,Gender Identity.
the key concept  of  Relationship that include of :Families, Friendship, Love, Romantic Relationships and Dating Marriage and Lifetime Commitments, Raising Children.
the key concept  of  personal skills that include of :Values, Decision making, Communication, Assertiveness, Negotiation,Looking for Help.
the key concept  of  sexual behvior that include of :Sexuality Throughout Life, Masturbation, Shared Sexual Behavior, Sexual Abstinence, Human Sexual Response, Sexual Fantasy, Sexual Dysfunction.
the key concept  of  Sexual Health that include of :Reproductive Health, Contraception, Pregnancy and Prenatal Care, Abortion, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV, Sexual Abuse, Violence,and Harassment.
the key concept  of  sexual and culture that include of : Sexuality and Society, Gender Roles, Sexuality and the Law, Sexuality and Religion, Diversity, Sexuality and the Media,Sexuality and the Arts.
 finally the of methods sexual education in Iran based on CSE:
direcet method: Participatory learning, student-centered.
Indirect method: Modeling, preaching and admonition, telling stories and anecdotes.
Discussion
The results of the present study indicate that CSE is a comprehensive program that is consistent with the protests and religious beliefs and values ​​and norms of the current Iranian society, although in some cases there are differences. This program can be implemented in Iran. The present study has provided the conditions for the implementation of this program by localizing the mentioned program. Therefore, it is suggested that senior managers and officials provide a suitable environment for the use of this model. Also in the subject of textbooks and production of cultural products (TV programs, Internet sites, cyberspace) the use of goals, content and methods of sexual education using the current model should be reviewed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CSE
  • Iran
  • Sexual Education