طراحی برنامه درسی آموزش شایستگی‌های معلم عشایر کوچنده برای دانشجو معلمان سهمیه عشایری دانشگاه فرهنگیان- رویکرد دیکوم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی دانشگاه شیراز،شیراز، ایران

2 دکترای برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی دانشگاه شیراز،شیراز، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر طراحی برنامه درسی آموزش شایستگی­های معلم عشایر کوچنده برای دانشجو معلمان سهمیه عشایری دانشگاه فرهنگیان بود. که با روش مطالعه موردی کیفی چند گانه صورت پذیرفت. مشارکت­کنندگان بالقوه در پژوهش علاوه بر تجربه زیسته تدریس در مناطق عشایری دارای تحصیلات حداقل کارشناسی ارشد و بالاتر بودند. انتخاب مشارکت کنندگان که 15 معلم خبره بودند نیز با استفاده از رویکرد هدفمند و با روش انتخاب گلوله برفی و استفاده از معیار اشباع نظری داده‌ها انجام شد. برای گردآوری داده­ها از روش بحث گروه­های کانونی و تکنیک دلفی استفاده شد، پژوهش با کمک تکنیک دیکوم و در شش گام انجام شد. در گام­های ابتدایی پس از تعریف عنوان شغل با مولفه­های چهارگانه (چه کسی،چه چیزی، چگونه، چرا)، 7 وظیفه اصلی و 30 وظیفه فرعی برای معلم عشایر کوچنده به دست آمد. در ادامه علاوه بر شناسایی فعالیت­های مرتبط به وظایف فرعی هر کدام  در سه حیطه شناختی، مهارتی و نگرشی جای گرفتند. هفت وظیفه اصلی  با عناوین 1)"خدمات آموزشی چند منظوره" شامل 6 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی بکارگیری تدریس خود تنظیمی؛ 2)"خدمات مدرسه داری" شامل3 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی انجام امور معاونت اجرایی و دفتر داری؛ 3)"فعالیت­های کلینیکی و ترمیم­سازی آموزشی" شامل 4 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی ارائه خدمات گفتار درمانی؛ 4)"خدمات مشاوره­ای و روانشناسی خانواده" شامل 3 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه نگرشی آموزش و بکارگیری مهارت­های هوش هیجانی؛ 5)"مدیریت و طرحریزی امور وابسته به موقعیت طبیعی" شامل 4 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی بکارگیری و یادگیری مهارت­های لازم زندگی عشایری و کوچ ؛6) "مدیریت و پیگیری امور اجتماعی و فرهنگی " شامل6 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی مبارزه با خرافات و در نهایت وظیفه اصلی7)"طرح­ریزی خدمات بهداشتی و سلامتی" شامل 4 وظیفه فرعی مانند وظیفه مهارتی کمک­های اولیه نامگذاری شدند. در گام ششم 18 وظیفه فرعی بر اساس اهمیت و  با نظرخواهی از خبرگان اولویت بندی شدند. داده های نهایی مطالعه به معرفی 15 دوره آمورشی ویژه مانند رویکردهای آموزش کلاس­های چند زبانه، جغرافیای عشایری کشور، مبانی مددکاری اجتماعی،کارگاه هنر زنده ماندن در شرایط سخت با استفاده از مهارت­های جغرافیایی و عشایری، کارگاه آشنایی با خدمات حقوقی و مشاوره­ای و معاضدت حقوقی برای سرفصل­های برنامه درسی که در تامین شایستگی­های و توانمندسازی دانشجو معلمان عشایرکوچنده موثر هستند؛ منجر شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development of a Curriculum for Training Nomadic Teacher Competencies for Student-Teachers at Farhangian University (Nomadic Quota): DACUM Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Shafiei Sarvestani 1
  • Yaghoub Rahimi Pordanjani 2
  • Jaafar Jahani 3
  • Mehdi Mohammadi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 PhD in Curriculum Planning, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
The present study aimed to develop a curriculum for nomadic teacher competencies training for student-teachers at Farhangian University (nomadic quota). We used DACUM techniques in six steps. Seven main tasks and 30 subtasks were defined for a teacher in nomadic tribes. The 7 main tasks include (1) “Multifunctional educational services”; (2) “School services”; (3) “Clinical activities and educational rehabilitation”; (4) “Counseling and family psychology services”; (5) “Life management and teaching in difficult natural conditions”; (6) “Management and follow-up of social and cultural affairs”; and (7) “Planning healthcare services”. The final data of the study resulted in 15 special training courses such as multilingual classroom teaching approaches and basics of social work for curriculum topics, which are effective in providing competencies and empowering student-teachers for nomadic tribes.
Introduction
Teachers are the only cultural entity living continuously among nomadic people, who in addition to educating the nomads, gain experiences that are part of their culture (Shaghari et al., 2014). They have a lot of authority and influence among the tribes. Teaching in multi-grade classes, helping the needy, and obtaining help from benefactors are among the social roles they play (Mosayi, 2017). Furthermore, nomads regard teachers with a high status and dignity, and treat them like family members (Attaran and Abdoli, 2012). A curriculum for properly training teachers who are responsible for producing knowledge, transferring skills, and institutionalizing attitudes is crystal clear. Curriculum is the software that not only transmits knowledge, but also generates it (Stevens Smith et al., 2014). Given the changes in and social problems of nomads and the role of teachers as facilitators of these changes and developments, a curriculum appears essential for facilitating such changes and developments. Therefore, the curricula of teacher training centers should be tailored to the needs of nomadic student-teachers to furnish them with the necessary competencies for proper job performance in disadvantaged areas. Teachers need to pass the necessary training related to acquiring skills, knowledge, and attitude for performing their duties effectively and achieving the predetermined goals (Abdolmaleki, 2010). These competencies are obtained via job analysis with special approaches such as DACUM and optimal education with appropriate curricula at Farhangian University.
Methodology
This was an applied research with a multistage qualitative case study approach employing the DACUM technique to develop a training course for teachers in nomadic tribes. Participants were selected via purposive sampling using snowball method and theoretical data saturation criterion, the focus group discussion method, and the Delphi technique to introduce the curriculum topics, determine the importance, and identify the type of competency areas. The study was conducted using the DACUM technique in six steps until the topics of advanced training course were developed. In the first step, experts were acquainted with the steps of the DACUM workshop. The second step defined and identified the job of a nomadic teacher. The third step extracted the major and minor responsibilities and duties of nomadic teachers. The fourth step identified activities related to each task and analyzed each duty in terms of work standards, tools, safety, etc. In the fifth step, the extracted tasks and duties were reviewed and refined. In the sixth step, learning competencies, the level of competency, and the importance of performing each task for teachers in nomadic tribes were determined (Fathi Vajargah, 2012). In this step, the duties and tasks of nomadic teachers obtained through an interview questionnaire were presented to a panel of experts to comment about the scope of learning the tasks (knowledge, skills, attitude), the level of competency (knowledge, ability, and mastery) and the importance of performing tasks by the employed teacher (desirable, important, critical). Then, tasks with the highest priority in the scale of the importance of the tasks were identified for training course and curriculum development for nomadic student-teachers. Finally, a comprehensive description was written for each course in the curriculum.
Results
According to Table 1, in the first steps of DACUM, seven main tasks and 30 subtasks were identified for teachers in nomadic tribes. As seen in Table 2, tasks were prioritized so that curriculum topics could be developed for student-teachers.
Conclusions
Given that nomadic teachers face many executive problems and challenges, and need to learn things that solve such problems, their curriculum should not be the same as a routine curriculum for teachers in urban and rural areas. Rather, educational programs should be different based on indigenous knowledge, the structure of the tribal community, and the characteristics of a nomadic teacher. Educational job analysis is therefore a fundamental solution for planners in preparing better and more effective goals, methods, activities, and training opportunities. Furthermore, the education departments of nomadic areas should complete and renew the teacher training tasks via in-service courses by considering the related contextual variables in each tribe, such as teacher’s social and extra-individual competencies, and their mastery of each duty and competency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Curriculum Syllabus
  • DACUM Approach
  • Teacher Job Analysis
  • Nomadic Student Teacher
  • Teacher Training
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