تأثیر آموزش فلسفه به نوجوان بر خودتنظیمی و مهارت اجتماعی دانش آموزان دختر متوسطه اول

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قم، قم، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف تعیین تأثیر آموزش فلسفه بر خودتنظیمی و رشد مهارت اجتماعی دانش آموزان دختر متوسطه اول قم در سال تحصیلی 99-1398 انجام شد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش انجام پژوهش، نیمه آزمایشی از نوع پیش‌آزمون – پس‌آزمون با گروه گواه بوده است . جامعه آماری مورد نظر شامل کلیه دانش آموان دختر دوره متوسط اول شهر قم در سال ۹۹-۱۳۹۸ بود. اعضای نمونه به صورت جایگزینی تصادفی ساده در دو گروه آزمایش و گواه قرار گرفتند؛ بدین ترتیب در هر گروه تعداد 20 دانش آموان دختر دوره متوسط اول حضور داشت. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات شامل مقیاس یادگیری خودتنظیمی پنتریچ و دی گروت (۱۹۹۰) و پرسشنامه مهارت­های اجتماعی ایندر بیتزن و فوستر (۱۹۹۲) بوده است. اعضای گره آزمایش در 12 جلسه 60 دقیقه­ای برنامه آموزش فلسفه شرکت کردند. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده­ها از آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیره استفاده شد. یافته­های پژوهش نشان داد که آموزش فلسفه تأثیر معناداری بر خودتنظیمی و رشد مهارت­های اجتماعی دانش آموزان دختر مقطع اول متوسطه دارد. بر اساس یافته­های پژوهش، آموزش فلسفه به نوجوانان موجب بهبود خودتنظیمی و رشد مهارت­های اجتماعی دانش آموزان دختر می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Teaching Philosophy on Self-Regulation and Social Skills among Female Junior High School Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Sheykhi 1
  • Abbas Habibzadeh 2
1 Ph.D. student of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Humanities Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Qom, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Humanities Sciences, Qom University, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of teaching philosophy on self-regulation and social skills among female junior high school students of Qom city in the academic year of 2019-2020. This quasi-experimental study used a pretest - posttest design with a control group. The study population comprised all female junior high school students of Qom city in the academic year of 2019-2020. The sample comprised 30 (15 for each group) female students selected by convenience sampling, who were randomly assigned to to each group. Then, the participants in the experimental group participated in 12 sessions of 60 min on philosophy. Data collection tool included the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies (1990). Then, the data were analyzed in SPSS.v21 software using statistical tests such as multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The results indicate that the philosophy teaching program had significant impact on self-regulation and social skills. Based on the findings of this study, teaching philosophy improves self-regulation and social skills among female junior high school students.
Introduction
Adolescence is the most active period for learning and education (Wilson & Hockenberry, 2014). For this reason, proper education and acquisition of competencies in schools have always been of interest to those involved in education and researchers in the field of educational sciences (Asl-Mohamadalizadeh et al., 2018). Self-regulation is a part of one's effort to regulate thoughts, feelings, and actions to achieve goals, and is seen as an active process in which learners try to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior (Palacios-Barrios & Hanson, 2019). Using this process plays an effective role in improving social functioning. Learning social skills, on the one hand, leads to high academic performance and on the other hand leads to positive behaviors that initiate, maintain, and expand positive interactions with peers (Adamou, et al., 2014).
In recent years, the philosophy teaching approach has been used to improve adolescents' self-regulatory and social skills. Teaching philosophy not only provides children with the opportunity to explore and practice cognitive and perceptual abilities, but also creates the ground for discovering and creating values and ideals that they consider important and respected (Cheraghzadeh, et al., 2019). A review of the literature shows that teaching philosophy has a significant effect on self-regulation and social skills (Fathiazar, et al., 2019; Banisi, et al., 2019). Therefore, the main question of the present study is whether the teaching philosophy has an effect on self-regulation and social skills of female junior high school students in Qom in the academic year 2019-2020.
Method
The present study is a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population included all female junior high school students in Qom in the academic year 2019-2020 (n= 28349). Samples were selected by convenience sampling method from Hazrat-Masoumeh High School. According to the research design and the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a sample of 40 girl students was selected. Samples were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each with 20 individuals. Lucky bag was used to randomize allocating students to experimental and control groups. The main researcher taught philosophy to the experimental group in 12 sessions (two sessions of 60 minutes per week), but the control group received no intervention. Data collection tool included the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies (1990). Data were analyzed in SPSS.v21 software using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA).
Findings
The mean (standard deviation) age of the experimental and control groups was 14.20 (0.83) and 14.35 (0.67) years, respectively. The results of the student's t-test showed that the two groups were age peers (P = 0.534; t = 0.627). MANCOVA was used to determine the effect of teaching philosophy on self-regulation and social skills of female junior high school students.
According to the results in Table 1, the value of F is the effect of teaching philosophy on the variables of self-regulation, and social skills (P <0.01). As seen in Table 2, teaching philosophy significantly affected components of self-regulation: self-efficacy, internal evaluation, motivational beliefs, self-regulation, and cognitive strategies.
As seen in Table 3, teaching philosophy significantly affected the component of desirable social behavior.
Discussion
The findings of the present study showed that teaching philosophy had a significant effect on self-regulation and social skills of girl students. Limitations of the present study include failure to assess findings in a follow-up phase which prevents making conclusions about the permanence of intervention effects. As the result of the present study showed that the philosophy teaching program is a successful method for improving self-regulation and social skills, and somehow does principled thinking and structural interaction, it is suggested that the philosophy teaching program be included in the curriculum from the very beginning. Also, considering that the hypothesis test showed that the philosophy teaching program has a significant effect on students' self-regulation and social skills, it is suggested that this program be used in the form of extracurricular school sessions to improve the mentioned skills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Teaching philosophy
  • self-regulation
  • social Skill
  • Female Students
Adamou, M., Johnson, M., & Alty, B. (2018). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores in males and females diagnosed with autism: A naturalistic study. Advances in Autism, 4 (2), 49–55.
Amini, A. (1999). Reliability of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS). Thesis for M.A in Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Centeral Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. )Text in Persian(.
Asl-Mohamadalizadeh, M., Taher Nesha- Doost, H., Talebi, and Abedi, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Self-Regulation Intervention on Improving the Components of Academic Competence of Male and Female High School Students in Tabriz. Journal of New Educational Approaches. 14(1): 53-71. (Text in Persian)
Banisi, P.,  Shams-Esfandabad, H., Emamipour, S. (2019). The Effect of Teaching Philosophy on the Child on Self-confidence and Social Skills. Journal of Social Psychology, 6 (50): 45-55. (Text in Persian).
Cheraghzadeh, M,.  Kord noghabi, R., and Sohrabi, Z. (2019). The Effectiveness of Training Philosophy to Children on the Feeling of Loneliness and Disappointment of Students. Journal of Thinking and Children, 10 (1): 37-50. (Text in Persian).
Denham, S. A., & Brown, C. (2010). “Plays nice with others”: Social–emotional learning and academic success. Early Education and Development, 21(5), 652-680.
Fathiazar, E., Taghipour, K., and Hajaghaei-kheyabani, A. (2019). The effect of philosophy education program for children on emotional self-regulation of working children. Journal of Thinking and Children, 10 (2): 95-114. (Text in Persian).
Ghobadian, M. (2015). The effect of philosophy education program on children on social skills of fifth grade elementary students. Journal of Educational Studies, 2 (30): 138-149. (Text in Persian).
Grüne-Yanoff, T. (2014). Teaching philosophy of science to scientists: why, what and how. European Journal for Philosophy of Science4(1), 115-134.
Iman-nejad, M,. Iman-Zade, A,. Taqi-pur, K,. and Tahmasb-zade Sheikhlar, D. (2020). The Effectiveness of Teaching Philosophy to Adolescents on Development of Aesthetic Beliefs and Moral Judgments of High School Students through Philosophical Community of Inquiry. Journal of Applied Issues in Islamic Education, 4 (4) :37-68. (Text in Persian).
Inderbitzen, H. M., & Foster, S. L. (1992). The teenage inventory of social skills: Development, reliability, and validity. Psychological Assessment4(4), 451.
Jalilian S, Azimpoor, .E, and Jalilian, F. (2016). Effecasy of Philosophy for Children Program (P4C) on the problem solving abilities and Moral Judgment of students. Journal of Educational Studies, 3 (32): 80-101. (Text in Persian).
Kalantari. S.,   Banijamali, Sh., and Khostavi, Z. (2014). The Effect of Philosophy for Children Program (P4C) on Reduction of Irrational Thoughts in 6th Academic Year Students in Brujen. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Personality, 21 (11): 37-48. (Text in Persian).
Merkel, W. (2020). “What I Mean Is…”: The role of dialogic interactions in developing a statement of teaching philosophy. Journal of Second Language Writing48, 100702.
Mohammadzadeh, R. (2017). The effectiveness of the research community method in teaching philosophy to children on the social skills of seventh grade students. National Conference on New Iran and World Research in Psychology, Educational Sciences and Social Studies, Shiraz, Iran. (Text in Persian).
Mosavi, A. (1997). Investigating the Relationship between Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies with Academic Achievement of Third Grade Middle School Students. Thesis for M.A in Psychology, Tehran Universiy, Tehran, Iran. )Text in Persian).
Multicultural, C. A. Q. (2019). Exploration nine. Creating a queer multicultural social justice teaching philosophy. Becoming aware (of self and others) through queer curriculum development, 172: 46-59.
Palacios-Barrios, E. E., & Hanson, J. L. (2019). Poverty and self-regulation: Connecting psychosocial processes, neurobiology, and the risk for psychopathology. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 90, 52-64.
Patterson, C. (2019). Chloé: Core Drivers of Experiential Orientation, Feedback and Self-Regulation. In Enacted Personal Professional Learning (pp. 69-81). Springer, Singapore.
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of educational psychology82(1), 33.
Rezaei, H., Shafiabadi, A., Ghaedi, Y., Delavar, A., and Esmaeili, M. (2019). Evaluation of the effectiveness of implementing a philosophy program for children through a research community method in increasing the emotional intelligence of high school girls. Journal of Educational Psychology, 9 (30): 79-105. (Text in Persian).
Trickey, S., & Topping, K. J. (2004). ‘Philosophy for children’: a systematic review. Research papers in Education19(3), 365-380.
Wilson, D., & Hockenberry, M. J. (2014). Wong's Clinical Manual of Pediatric Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.