واکاوی پیشران‌های کلیدی تبیین‌کنندة مسئولیت‌پذیری اجتماعی در نظام آموزش و پرورش با رویکرد سناریونویسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی گرایش منابع انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان. زاهدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

4 استاد گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت نگاه سناریویی و ایجاد قابلیت ­های تصمیم­ گیری و برنامه­ ریزی در آینده، این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی پیشران­ های کلیدی تبیین­کنندة مسئولیت­ پذیری اجتماعی در نظام آموزش و پرورش بر مبنای رویکرد ماتریس اثرات متقاطع و سناریونویسی انجام گرفته است. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی بوده و بدنبال پاسخگویی به پرسش­های اصلی مطرح­ شده، از روش توصیف، تحلیل و استنتاج استفاده نموده است. از این رو، ابتدا جهت گردآوری داده­ه ای توصیفی از روش اسنادی به صورت مطالعات کتابخانه­ای و پژوهش­های معتبر در راستای موضوع و همچنین مصاحبه با تعدادی از معلمان و مدیران دغدغه­ مند در حیطة موضوعی پژوهش بهره گرفته شد و سپس برای گردآوری داده­ های تحلیلی نیز، ترکیبی از روش پیمایشی به‌صورت پرسش­نامه و روش دلفی استفاده گردید. نمونة آماری در دور دلفی 15 نفر از معلمان، دبیران و بصورت کلی فرهنگیان فعال در حوزة مسئولیت­ پذیری اجتماعی مدارس و در مرحلة پیمایشی 20 نفر از فعالان حوزة مربوطه بودند که به شیوة نمونه­ گیری گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند. در این پژوهش برای سنجش روایی، ضمن استفاده از روایی صوری، از کنش متقابل سه ­گانه نیز استفاده گردید و داده ­ها با کمک نرم­ افزارهای اس­ پی ­­اس­ اس، میک­ مک و سناریوویزارد تحلیل شدند. یافته­ های پژوهش نشان می­دهد که 15 عامل به‌عنوان پیشران کلیدی مسئولیت­ پذیری اجتماعی، 40 وضعیت محتمل برای 15 عامل و دو دستة سناریو­های پیش­برنده و بازدارنده مسئولیت­ پذیری اجتماعی در نظام آموزش و پرورش موجود می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Key Drivers Explaining Social Responsibility in the Education System with a Scriptwriting Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Golbahar Pouranjenar 1
  • Habibaullah Salarzehi 2
  • Ali Asghar Tabavar 3
  • Nour Mohammad Yaghoubi 4
1 Ph.D. student in Public Administration, majoring in Human Resources, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Management and Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This study was conducted to identify the key drivers explaining social responsibility in the education system with a scriptwriting approach. Descriptive data were collected with the documentary (library) method and interviews. Analytical data were collected using a combination of survey method via a questionnaire and the Delphi method. The statistical sample in the Delphi phase was 15 individuals from among teachers, educators, and educational staff in the field of social responsibility at schools. The sample in the survey phase included 20 activists in the relevant field who were selected by snowball sampling. In the present study, data were analyzed in SPSS, MICMAC, and Scenario Wizard software. The research findings indicated 15 factors as key drivers of social responsibility, 40 possible situations for the 15 factors, and two categories of promoting and hindering scenarios for social responsibility in Iran’s education system. 
Introduction
Various issues (Huda et al., 2018) currently surround the educational system which will lead to the collapse of national and international societies if ignored (Liu & Wu, 2016). This suggests that today’s interactive world needs responsible people more than ever (Tomazevic, 2019). Hidger (2012) considers social responsibility as a coping strategy to meet the community concerns because it is beyond individual or group interests (Dabrowski et al., 2018) and will lead to prosperity (Amadi & Bayo, 2020), growth, and excellence of society as a whole (Wang et al., 2020). Therefore, the educational organizations at the school level have a serious responsibility in involving students with social responsibility (Eghdampour et al., 2017). Dixit (2020) believes that having a good role model in the social institutions of the family and school will provide individuals with a good environment to cultivate a sense of responsibility. Additionally, Santos et al. (2020) stated that little research has been done on students’ social responsibility, which will incur a lot of social costs on the future of society. Patel (2019) also pointed to the crisis in the quality of education and the challenges in the field of social responsibility strategies in the education system.
Therefore, given the importance of the subject, the present study tried to add a new aspect to the research in the field of education in Iran through scriptwriting approach. Hence, questions such as “What factors and drivers will be effective for creating responsible behavior, especially among students?”, “What are the possible situations for each of the selected key factors?”, and “What will be the possible scenarios resulting from different situations?” have been raised as fundamental questions.
Methodology
The initial drivers in the field of social responsibility were identified by examining the review of the literature, and semi-structured interviews with experts in the relevant field were used to determine the appropriateness of these factors. Then, analytical data were collected using a combination of survey method (questionnaire) and Delphi panel.
The Delphi panel of the present study included 15 educational staff (teachers, educators, and principals) employed in or retired from the Education Department in Golestan, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Isfahan provinces in Iran who had a common characteristic of being concerned about social responsibility education and social volunteer activities. Two questionnaires of MICMAC and scenario development (semi-open) were used in the survey method. The statistical sample that completed these two questionnaires included 20 teachers, educators, and principals active in this field. In addition to face validity, triangulation (literature documents and records, semi-structured interviews with experts, and Delphi panel of experts) was used to ensure the convergence of the research and measure its validity. SPSS, MICMAC, and Scenario Wizard software were used to analyze the data. Using MICMAC software, first, important factors were identified based on the mentioned process and entered into the impact analysis matrix. Then, the relevance of these factors to the field was determined (Godet, 2008) and a scenario was designed for the future (Aryanmanesh et al., 2019).
Results
The findings of the present study are summarized in seven phases. In the first phase, 95 factors were extracted from reviewing 235 Iranian and non-Iranian articles, some of which were removed or merged after a semi-structured interview with experts in the field of social responsibility at schools.
In the second phase, factors identified in the previous phase were used in a questionnaire to be distributed among Delphi panel members to determine the importance and value of each factor. The selection of 30 key factors by experts was the third phase of the present study. In the fourth phase, selected factors were weighted in the form of a questionnaire to determine the relevance of the factors. In the fifth phase, after entering the data obtained from the questionnaire, the cross-impact matrix was examined in both direct and indirect ways. Figures 1 and 2 show the position of the factors and their relevance.
In the sixth phase, according to the 15 selected key drivers, a total of 40 favorable and unfavorable situations were designed that the number of situations of each factor ranged from 2 to 8 in proportion to the complexity of its conditions.
According to the obtained situations, a cross matrix of 40x40 was formed and the questionnaire was again provided to the panel of experts to determine the impact of each situation on the system by scoring them from -3 to +3. Grouping scenarios and determining the most effective scenarios was the seventh phase of the research.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the results of the present study, 15 key driving factors of responsible behavior among students, 40 possible situations (a range of desirable and undesirable situations), and two promoting (enhancing social responsibility) and hindering (undermining social responsibility) scenarios were identified.
The second and first promoting scenarios, and the third and fourth hindering scenarios were introduced as effective scenarios, respectively. The results of this study are consistent with those of Kordlu (2008), Fazlollahi Qomshi (2015), Eghdampour et al. (2019), Alaa Tag Aldin (2015), Sharma and Sharma (2019), and Gallardo‐Vazquez et al. (2020).
Each of the mentioned studies has pointed to different aspects of education, research, and management, which are among the important findings of the present study. However, other studies conducted in this area are appropriate but insufficient because they often refer to the importance of the role of schools and universities in strengthening social responsibility, and express the influential factors and their interactions with the issue; however, they have failed to provide key driving factors of social responsibility. Furthermore, most of them were conducted at the university level, when it is difficult to cultivate a sense of social responsibility in individuals. Cognitive competencies and practical initiatives that ultimately lead to responsibility would be much easier to develop in students and adolescents who are studying at schools rather than at universities.
Given the importance of this issue, one of the main differences between the present study and previous ones is in focusing on how to teach responsibility to students in elementary and high schools and also to address the scriptwriting approach to create decision-making and planning capabilities in the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • responsibility
  • Social responsibility
  • Students
  • Schools
  • education
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