عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Merrill, in his criticisms of the lecturing methods of teaching, stated that the sole transfer of information is not learning and teaching. However, teaching and learning are based on principles which form the basis of education. These principles called 'Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction' are problem-centered, activation, demonstration, application and integration.The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of instruction based on Merrill’s first principles of instruction inimproving learning and retention of biology course in the first grade high school students. The method of the research was quasi-experimental with pretest – posttest control group. It was hypothesized that the instruction designed based on Merrill’s first principles of instruction is effective on learning and retention of biology. ANCOVA was conducted to analyze the data and the results revealed a significant difference between the learning and retention ofbiology in the experimental and control group. The experimental group had better learning.The findings also showed that the experimental group was better than the control group in the retention test. It is, therefore, suggested that using Merrill's first principles of instruction the students' learning and retention can be improved.